PRODUCT

Ultimate Glucosamine® contains 100% pure N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. Ultimate Glucosamine®含有100%的純天然N-乙醯葡糖胺。

WHAT IS N-ACETYL-D-GLUCOSAMINE?

N-乙醯葡糖胺是什麼?

 

N-Acetylglucosamine is a natural-source substance found in healthy cartilage that aids in joint lubrication.

N-乙醯葡糖胺(N-Acetylglucosamine)是一種能夠在健康的軟骨中找到的天然物質,有助於潤滑關節。

 

Ultimate Glucosamine® is a powder consisting of 100% N-Acetylglucosamine. This is the form of glucosamine actually found in the human body. It is an important nutritional component of human breast milk and is the second most abundant sugar after lactose.

Ultimate Glucosamine®是一種含有100%N-乙醯葡糖胺的粉末,這種氨基葡萄糖的型態能在人體內找到。它是人奶中一種重要的營養成份,也是在內除了乳糖外最豐富的糖份。

 

Ultimate Glucosamine® is the purest form of glucosamine on the market. It is the purest because its formulation contains no additives such as salts, preservatives, coloring agents, glutens, lactose or yeast. It dissolves readily in both hot and cold liquids. When dissolved in water it forms a clear, colorless solution that has a pleasant, sweet taste. Because of these properties, Ultimate Glucosamine® is easy to add to your favorite hot or cold beverage or morning cereal.

 

基於配方不含任何添加劑,例如鹽分,防腐劑,色素,麩質,乳糖或酵母,Ultimate Glucosamine®是市場內最純淨的氨基葡萄糖型態。它在熱和冷的液體中均迅速溶解:當溶於水內,它會形成清澈的無色溶液,味道清甜。基於這些特性,您能隨時把Ultimate Glucosamine®添加到喜愛的熱或冷飲,或早餐穀物內。

 

IT IS A POWDER; HOW DO I TAKE IT?

它是一種粉末;我應如何食用?

 

This new powder format gives you flexibility in how you consume Ultimate Glucosamine®. Just add 1 level teaspoon of Ultimate Glucosamine® to any hot or cold drink including tea, coffee, juice, milk or soda. Here are some of the ways people take their Ultimate Glucosamine®:

新的粉末配方令你能隨心所欲地食用Ultimate Glucosamine®。您只需在任何冷熱飲品中添加1平茶匙的Ultimate Glucosamine®,包括茶,咖啡,果汁,牛奶或蘇打水,即可食用。以下是一些別人食用Ultimate Glucosamine®的例子:

For a pleasant, relaxing bedtime drink, add 1 teaspoon to a cup of camomile tea.

如要享受令人放鬆的睡前飲品,可以加1茶匙到洋甘菊茶中。

Add 1 teaspoon to your daily cup of early morning coffee.

加1茶匙到你每天早上喝的咖啡內。

Sprinkle 1 teaspoon over your hot or cold morning cereal.

撒1茶匙在你冷或熱的早晨穀物上。

After playing sports or other physical activity, add 1 teaspoon to your favorite thirst-quenching hot or cold beverage.

在運動或其他體力活動後,加1茶匙進您最喜愛的解渴飲料裡,冷熱皆可。

 

The once-a-day, pleasant-tasting formula can easily be adapted to your daily routine – wherever, whenever.

這每天一次,味道怡人的配方可以輕易地成為您日常生活的一部份 – 任何時侯,任何地點。

 

Most people take 1 level teaspoon (5 mL), or about 2 grams of N-Acetylglucosamine, at a time. Others prefer to use more, especially when they first start to take Ultimate Glucosamine®.

大多數人一次服用1平茶匙(5毫升),或約2克N-乙醯葡糖胺。其他人則傾向於使用更多份量,尤其是當第一次開始食用Ultimate Glucosamine®。

 

The Science Supporting Glucosamine Utility

支持葡糖胺實用性的科學理據

 

Introduction to the Glucosamine family of Compounds

認識葡糖胺的化合物家族

 

Glucosamine is a general term referring to a family of substances consisting of a glucose core with an amine (-NH2) instead of a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to carbon 2. Further modifications such as the combination with salts or the addition of an acetate bound to an amine yield substances with very different physical and biological properties. In the descriptions below, glucosamine salt refers to a glucosamine with the chemical name: 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (MW = 179) plus various salts (sulphates, chlorides, sodium and potassium). N-Acetylglucosamine refers to 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (MW 221). N-Acetylglucosamine is found throughout the human body in various large structural molecules. The glucosamine of glucosamine salts is a transitional substance that may be deaminated (removal of the -NH2 and adding back the -OH) back toward glucose and used for energy production or metabolized to N-Acetylglucosamine. For more details on the chemistry and formulations see below.

 

葡糖胺是一個通用術語,指的是一個由葡萄糖為核心,以胺(NH2)代替羥基(-OH)與碳2(Carbon 2)連接的一種物質族群。進一步的改進,如與鹽結合或添加與胺結合的醋酸產生的物質具有非常不同的物理和生理性質。在下面的描述中,葡糖胺鹽是指一種葡糖胺,化學名稱為:2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖(MW =179)附加幾種鹽(硫酸鹽,氯化物,鈉和鉀)。N-乙醯葡糖胺是指2-乙酰氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖(分子量221)。N-乙醯葡糖胺存在於人體中的各種大型結構分子。

葡糖胺鹽的葡糖胺是一種可以脫氨基回葡萄糖(除去-NH 2,加回-OH)的過渡物質,及用於能源生產或代謝為N-乙酰氨基葡糖。有關化學細節和配方請詳見下文。

 

How N-Acetylglucosamine Impacts Pain and Inflammation

N-乙醯葡糖胺如何影響痛楚和發炎

 

How N-Acetylglucosamine relieves joint pain and swelling was investigated in human chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes in culture were stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β up-regulates messenger RNA for inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS). When N-Acetylglucosamine was added to the culture media IL-1β was not able to up-regulate messenger RNA for iNOS. See Figure 1. Nitric Oxide is instrumental in tissue swelling.

透過考察人類軟骨細胞,我們能揭露N-乙醯葡糖胺如何緩解關節疼痛和腫脹。正在養殖的人類軟骨細胞與促炎細胞因子白細胞介素1β(IL-1β)一同被刺激,IL-1β上調信使RNA產生誘導型一氧化氮合酶。當N-乙醯葡糖胺被加入到培養基中,IL-1β無法上調信使RNA產生iNOS。結果,因為軟骨細胞缺乏酶製造iNOS,它們不能夠產生一氧化氮。參見圖1。一氧化氮是組織腫脹的重要成份。

 

Figure 1 圖1

 

Nitric oxide production by human chondrocytes is low in resting cells and increases dramatically when exposed to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The addition of N-Acetylglucosamine mitigates IL-1β’s ability to stimulate Nitric Oxide.

由人軟骨細胞產生的一氧化氮在休眠細胞含量低,當暴露於促炎細胞因子IL-1β時則顯著增加。加入N-乙醯葡糖胺減弱IL-1β刺激一氧化氮的能力。

 

In the same experimental set-up it was shown that IL-1β up-regulates messenger RNA for Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). When N-Acetylglucosamine was added to the culture media IL-1β was not able to up-regulate messenger RNA for COX-2. A reduction in the COX-2 messenger RNA results in a reduction in the amount of COX 2 enzyme. Patients experience a reduction in pain when there isn’t any COX-2 present or when COX-2 is inhibited by NSAIDS. Pain medications such as celecoxib, ibuprofen and naproxen work by inhibiting the COX-2 enzyme. N-Acetylglucosamine reduces overall COX-2 activity by reducing the amount of available COX-2 enzyme. Importantly, N acetylglucosamine does not affect the expression of COX-1 protein. COX-1 protein is constitutively present in tissue and is essential for normal function. Inhibition of COX-1 protein is the cause of some of the side effects seen with NSAIDs.

在相同的實驗設置中,顯示了IL-1β上調信使RNA以產生環氧合酶-2(COX-2)。當加入N-乙醯葡糖胺到培養基中,IL-1β無法上調信使RNA產生COX-2,減少COX-2信使RNA令COX2酶的數量減少。沒有任何COX-2存在或COX-2被NSAIDS抑制時,患者感受到的疼痛將會減少。止痛藥物,如塞來昔布(celecoxib),布洛芬(ibuprofen)和萘普生(naproxen)通過抑制COX-2酶而發揮作用。N-乙醯葡糖胺通過減少可用的COX-2酶數量,而降低整體COX-2的活躍程度。重要的是,N-乙酰葡糖胺不影響COX-1蛋白的表現。COX-1蛋白是身體組織重要的構成部份,必需於正常運作。抑制COX-1蛋白是出現一些與NSAIDs有關的副作用的原因。

 

For more information: Shikhman AR, Kuhn K, Alaaeddine N, Lotz M. N-Acetylglucosamine prevents IL-1 beta-mediated activation of human chondrocytes. J Immunol 2001;166(8):5155-60.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290798

 

更多資訊:Shikhman AR,Kuhn K,Alaaeddine N,Lotz M。N-乙醯葡糖胺可防止活化IL-1β介導的人軟骨細胞。J Immunol 2001;166(8):5155-60.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11290798

 

N-Acetylglucosamine: A Functional Role in Cartilage

N-乙醯葡糖胺:在軟骨中的功能角色

 

Articular cartilage is composed of collagen, saccharide chains bound to proteins (proteoglycans) and water. The saccharides of cartilage bind large quantities of water forming complexes that gives cartilage its cushioning effect.

關節軟骨是由膠原蛋白,蛋白結合糖鏈(蛋白聚醣)和水組成。軟骨的糖結合大量水分形成絡合物,而給予軟骨的緩衝作用。

 

The principle saccharide components found in cartilage are N-Acetylglucosamine, its epimer, N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine and glucuronic acid. These components are organized into two major co-polymers: 1) N-Acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, known as hyaluronic acid and 2) N-Acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid known as chondroitin.

在軟骨中發現的主要醣類成分是N-乙醯葡糖胺,其差向異構體,N-乙酰-D-半乳糖胺和葡糖醛酸。這些組件被組織成兩個主要的共聚物:1)N-乙醯葡糖胺和葡糖醛酸,稱為透明質酸和2)N-乙醯半乳糖胺和葡糖醛酸,稱為軟骨素。

 

The clinical use of supplements of preformed saccharide components such as N-Acetylglucosamine helps to build cartilage by saving the chondrocyte many energy requiring enzymatic steps. In other words, the chondrocyte does not have to build saccharide side chains from the three basic starting materials: glucose, glutamine and acetate.

臨床上使用的預成型醣類組分如N-乙酰氨基葡糖的補充劑,通過保存軟骨細胞中許多要求酶促步驟的能量,而有助於構建軟骨。換句話說,軟骨細胞不必從三個基本的起始原料:葡萄糖,谷氨酰胺和乙酸而建立糖側鏈。

 

Chondroitin sulfate is also a popular supplement. However, this large molecule is a copolymer of N-Acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid and cannot be absorbed from the gut intact but must first be broken down into its constituent parts: N-Acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid. The individual components then pass through the circulation to the chondrocyte where they are used to build chondroitin in cartilage.

硫酸軟骨素是也是一個受歡迎的補充成份。然而,該結構龐大的分子是N-乙酰基和葡萄糖醛酸的共聚物,並且不能從腸道完好吸收,而必須首先被分解成其組成部分:N-乙酰和葡糖醛酸。各個組件然後通過循環傳遞到軟骨細胞,在那裡它們被用於軟骨構建軟骨素。

 

N-Acetylglucosamine can also be used by the chondrocyte to build chondroitin. In the chondrocyte N-Acetylglucosamine can be converted to N-Acetylgalactosamine by intracellular epimerases. Thus N-Acetylglucosamine supplementation can supply a chondrocyte’s N-Acetylgalactosamine requirements.

N-乙酰氨基葡糖還可以被軟骨細胞使用來構建軟骨素。在軟骨細胞的N-乙酰葡糖胺可通過細胞內差向異構酶轉化為N-乙酰基。因此N-乙酰氨基葡糖補充劑可以提供軟骨細胞的N-乙酰要求。

 

Injury to cartilage such as excessive weight bearing or shear is characterized by an early loss of saccharides from cartilage. Loss of the saccharide components leads to a loss of water and thus a loss of cartilage height and cushioning. Restoration of the saccharide components of cartilage may restore cartilage height and cushioning properties.

軟骨損傷,如過度負重或磨損是令軟骨糖早期損失的典型例子。所述醣類組分的損失導致水份流失,從而令軟骨高度和緩衝作用減少。復原軟骨的醣類組分可能會恢復軟骨高度和緩衝性。

 

N-Acetylglucosamine vs Glucosamine Salts: Which is Better?

N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖VS葡萄糖胺鹽:哪個更好?

 

Ultimate Glucosamine®: Has Superior Biological Properties

Ultimate Glucosamine®:具有優越的生理性特質

 

N-Acetylglucosamine has several advantages over glucosamine salts as a therapeutic agent.

N-乙酰氨基葡糖作為治療劑比葡糖胺鹽有幾個優勝之處。

 

Insulin Resistance胰島素抗性

Upon entering the cell the glucosamine of glucosamine salts are phosphorylated by glucokinase and thus compete with glucose for binding to glucokinase. This can result in glucosamine induced insulin resistance. N-Acetylglucosamine is phosphorylated by N-Acetylglucosamine kinase and does not compete with glucose for phosphorylation.

當進入細胞時,葡糖胺鹽的葡糖胺被葡萄糖激酶磷酸化,並因此與葡萄糖競爭結合葡糖激酶,這可能會導致葡糖胺誘導對胰島素的抗性。 N-乙酰葡糖胺是由N-乙酰葡糖胺激酶磷酸化,並且不與葡萄糖競爭磷酸化。

 

Diversion to Energy Production轉向到能源生產

Once in the cell, the glucosamine of glucosamine salts can be deaminated resulting in the production of ammonia and fructose. Fructose is then used for energy metabolism. N-Acetylglucosamine is not metabolized for energy production but is incorporated into macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans.

一旦在細胞中,葡糖胺鹽的葡糖胺可以脫氨基,造成生產氨和果糖。果糖然後被用於能量代謝。 N-乙酰氨基葡糖不能被代謝產生能量,但被摻入高分子,如透明質酸和蛋白聚醣。

 

Subject to Rate Limiting Enzymatic Acetylation Step受限速酶的乙酰化步驟影響

Once into the cell, the glucosamine of glucosamine salts must be acetylated to become N-Acetylglucosamine before incorporation into the saccharide chains of cartilage. This acetylation step is inefficient and also subject to inhibition by agents such as salicylates and ethanol. N-Acetylglucosamine is already acetylated and is not subject this sensitive rate limiting enzymatic step.

一旦進入細胞內,葡萄糖胺鹽的葡糖胺必須乙酰化成為N-乙酰葡糖胺,之後摻入到軟骨的糖鏈。此乙酰化步驟效率低和也受到抑制劑影響,例如水楊酸鹽和乙醇。N-乙酰已乙酰化,而不受這個敏感的限速酶步驟影響。

 

Why Glucosamine May not be Working For Your Patient: The Formulation Problem

為何葡萄糖胺可能無法對你的病人產生作用:配方問題

 

Glucosamine is a general term referring to a family of substances consisting of a glucose core with an amine (-NH2) instead of a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to carbon 2. Most products on the market are further modified by the addition of salts. While glucosamine is inherently unstable, the addition of various salts results in a stable complex. Table 1 illustrates the various glucosamine salt preparations on the market. What this table illustrates is that in order for a tablet to contain 500 milligrams of glucosamine (the biologically active substance) a tablet must contain proportionately more because of the salt used to stabilize the formulation. The amount is determined by the specific salt chosen by the manufacturer.

葡糖胺是一個通用術語,指的是一個由葡萄糖為核心,以胺(NH2)代替羥基(-OH)與碳2(Carbon 2)連接的一種物質族群。大多數在市場上的產品加入鹽以進一步改進。本質上葡糖胺內在結構不穩,但加入各種鹽能產生穩定的複合物。表1說明了市場上各種葡糖胺鹽的製劑。這個表格說明的是,為了使藥片包含500毫克的葡糖胺(生物活性物質),因為用於穩定製劑中的鹽的比例較多,藥片必須包含比例較多的鹽。份量是由製造商選擇的鹽來判定。

 

市場上氨基葡萄糖產品名稱 分子式 鹽的份量(毫克)/每500毫克葡萄糖胺
2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖硫酸鹽氯化鈉(結晶硫酸氨基葡萄糖氯化鈉) (C6H14NO5)2SO4 2NaCl 295
2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖硫酸鹽氯化鉀(結晶葡萄糖硫酸鹽氯化鉀) (C6H14NO5)2SO4 2KCl 340
2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖鹽酸鹽(氨基葡萄糖鹽酸鹽) C6H13NO5-HCl 102

 

The various salts of low molecular glucosamine create a formulation problem. For example, when the label says 500 mg of crystalline glucosamine sulfate does the capsule contain 500 mg of the complex (salts plus glucosamine) or 500 mg of the active ingredient, i.e. glucosamine plus for example 340 mg of sulfate and potassium chloride? This has practical implications for therapeutics because different formulations may contain very different amounts of glucosamine. In a study of glucosamine products on the Canadian market, Aghazadeh-Habashi and Jamali at the faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, found that only one 500 mg glucosamine salt product out of 13 on the Canadian market contained 100% of the labeled amount of glucosamine. See figure 2 below. Three out of 13 product tested contained between 300 to 400 milligrams of glucosamine, eight out of 13 products tested contained between 200 and 299 milligram of glucosamine and one product only contained 169 mg of glucosamine.

各種低分子量的葡萄糖胺鹽製造了製劑份量的問題。例如,當標籤說明含有500毫克結晶葡糖胺硫酸鹽,膠囊含有的是500毫克的複合物(鹽加葡糖胺的總含量)或500毫克的主要成分(即葡糖胺)外加舉例是340毫克的硫酸和氯化鉀?這實際上影響治療,因為不同的補充配方含有的葡萄糖胺份量差異可能很大。在加拿大市場上對葡萄糖胺產品的一項研究顯示,阿加扎德-哈伯西(Aghazadeh-Habashi)和賈馬利(Jamali)在阿爾伯塔大學藥劑業及製藥科學學院發現,加拿大市場內的13款500毫克葡萄糖胺鹽產品中只有1款的標示量含有100%的氨基葡萄糖。請看圖2所示。13款經過測試的產品有3款包含300至400毫克葡萄糖胺,8款包含200和299毫克葡萄糖胺,1款僅含有169毫克的葡萄糖胺。

 

Figure 2: Actual Test Result for 13 Products On The Canadian Market Claiming 500 mg of Glucosamine Content.

圖2:加拿大市場上13款自稱含有500毫克葡萄糖胺的葡糖胺產品實際測試結果。

 

Actual low molecular weight glucosamine content in milligrams per capsule or tablet for 13 product claiming 500 milligrams per tablet or capsule. (From Aghazadeh-Habashi 2011)

13款聲稱每片劑或每膠囊含有500毫克的產品在每毫克膠囊或片劑的實際低分子量氨基葡萄糖含量。. (阿加扎德-哈伯西,2011)

 

Ultimate Glucosamine® is Different

Ultimate Glucosamine®與眾不同

 

Ultimate Glucosamine® brand of N-Acetylglucosamine is inherently stable and does not require the addition of salts. Ultimate Glucosamine® is formulated as a 100% pure powder without any additives or preservatives of any kind. The pure powder formulation permits patients to make use of the physical properties of N-Acetylglucosamine, sweetness and temperature stability. Ultimate Glucosamine® can be added as a sweetener to a patient’s favourite hot or cold beverage. No tablets to swallow. And because it is 100% N-Acetylglucosamine, the patient gets a full dose every time.

Ultimate Glucosamine®品牌的N-乙醯葡糖胺絕對穩定,並且不需要另外加入鹽。Ultimate Glucosamine®以100%純粉末製成,絕不含任何添加劑或防腐劑。純粉末的製劑令患者能從N-乙醯葡糖胺的物理性質,甜度和溫度穩定性中得益。Ultimate Glucosamine®能被當作增甜劑,加到患者喜愛的冷熱飲品中。您不用進食任何藥片,而且由於本產品是100%的N-乙醯葡糖胺,患者每次均能攝取足夠的劑量。

 

Most people taking glucosamine supplements are older, probably taking 3 or 4 prescription medications, a multi vitamin and a calcium tablet. Glucosamine formulated in tablets or capsules would add 3 to 6 more “pills” per day to an already substantial “pill burden”. In contrast, Ultimate Glucosamine®’s Once-A Day formulation of N-Acetylglucosamine can be added to a patients favorite hot or cold beverage. Improved compliance ensures a better treatment outcome.

大多數服用葡萄糖胺補充劑的人均年齡較長,可能會同時服用3或4種處方藥,多種維他命及鈣片。氨基葡萄糖藥片或膠囊配製把每天要服用的“藥物”再增加3至6粒“藥”加大了本已沉重的“藥丸數量負擔”。相反,Ultimate Glucosamine®每日一用的N-乙醯葡糖胺配劑能加到患者喜愛的冷熱飲品中,改善了的服用程序能確保更佳的治療效果。

 

Safety of Ultimate Glucosamine®

Ultimate Glucosamine®的安全性

 

There are no known drug interactions with Ultimate Glucosamine® brand of N-Acetylglucosamine. Furthermore, N-Acetylglucosamine is not metabolized by the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme family and thus will not interfere with prescription medications that may be metabolized by Cytochrome P450 enzymes.

目前為止,Ultimate Glucosamine®品牌的N-乙醯葡糖胺與藥物沒有已知的相互作用。此外,N-乙醯葡糖胺不被細胞色素P450酶家族代謝,因而不會與可能通過細胞色素P450酶代謝的處方藥物干擾。

 

Note: Ultimate Glucosamine® brand of N-Acetylglucosamine is a semi synthetic derived from shellfish. Patients with shellfish allergy should not take Ultimate Glucosamine®.

注意:Ultimate Glucosamine®品牌的N-乙醯葡糖胺是從貝類衍生的半合成物。貝類過敏患者不宜服用Ultimate Glucosamine®。

 

Notice: The information is intended to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the science underlying the role of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine in the mammalian body. The scientific information on this site has been compiled from many different scientific sources. No specific therapeutic claims are made for any product. The information provided on this site is for general information purposes only and is not intended to qualify, supplement or replace that of your medical professional. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Your healthcare giver should undertake diagnosing and treating your medical condition.

上述資訊旨在向讀者提供對葡糖胺和N-乙醯葡糖胺在哺乳動物體內作用的科學的基本全面理解。本網站上的科學信息是從許多不同的科學資料中編制而成。任何產品並沒有具體的治療作用。本網站提供的信息僅用於一般資訊,並不旨在合資格化,補充或取替您的醫學專家意見。這些說明並未被食品和藥物管理局評核。本產品不用於診斷,治療,治愈或預防任何疾病。您的醫療保健員應進行診斷和治療您的病情。

 

2003 PurePharm Inc. All rights reserved Copyright and Legal Disclaimer.

2003年PurePharm Inc.。公司保留所有版權和合法聲明權利。

RECOMMENDED DOSE 建議劑量

Most people take 1 level teaspoon (about two grams) of ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE. The once-a-day powder format can easily be adapted to your daily routine:

  • For a relaxing bedtime drink, add to a cup of camomile tea.
  • Make it part of your morning ritual with a cup coffee.
  • Sprinkle some over hot or cold cereal.
  • After any physical activity, add it to a favorite energy drink or smoothie.

Some people prefer to use more, especially when they first start taking ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE. Since the substance has no known toxicity, 2 to 3 teaspoons per day can be taken without any side effects.

大多數人採取1級茶匙(約2克)ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE。一天一次可以很容易地適應你的日常生活:

可放入茶或咖啡。
撒上一些熱或冷的麥片。

在任何身體活動後,將其添加到最喜愛的能量飲料或冰沙飲料。
有些人更喜歡使用更多,特別是當他們開始服用ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE時。由於該物質沒有已知的毒性,每天可以服用2-3茶匙而沒有任何副作用。

WHEN DO BENEFITS OF ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE KICK IN? 什麼時候會看到葡萄糖胺的用處?

Some people see a therapeutic response in only a week.

有些人只在一個星期內看到了治療反應。

TELL YOUR DOCTOR BEFORE TAKING 如有需要, 告知你的醫生才食用

There are no known interactions with prescription medications, nor is there evidence of any specific side effects attributable to ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE. Still, you should always make your health care professional aware of all supplements you are taking.

與處方藥物沒有已知的相互作用,也沒有任何可歸因於終極葡萄糖胺的特定副作用的證據。不過,您應該始終讓您的保健專業人員知道您正在服用的所有補充劑。