Ultimate Glucosamine® contains 100% pure N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine. Ultimate Glucosamine®含有100%的純天然N-乙醯葡萄糖胺。




N-Acetylglucosamine is a natural-source substance found in healthy cartilage that aids in joint lubrication.



Ultimate Glucosamine® is a powder consisting of 100% N-Acetylglucosamine. This is the form of glucosamine actually found in the human body. It is an important nutritional component of human breast milk and is the second most abundant sugar after lactose.

Ultimate Glucosamine®是一種含有100%N-乙醯葡糖胺的粉末,這種氨基葡萄糖的型態能在人體內找到。它是人奶中一種重要的營養成份,也是在內除了乳糖外最豐富的糖份。


Ultimate Glucosamine® is the purest form of glucosamine on the market. It is the purest because its formulation contains no additives such as salts, preservatives, coloring agents, glutens, lactose or yeast. It dissolves readily in both hot and cold liquids. When dissolved in water it forms a clear, colorless solution that has a pleasant, sweet taste. Because of these properties, Ultimate Glucosamine® is easy to add to your favorite hot or cold beverage or morning cereal.


基於配方不含任何添加劑,例如鹽分,防腐劑,色素,麩質,乳糖或酵母,Ultimate Glucosamine®是市場內最純淨的氨基葡萄糖型態。它在熱和冷的液體中均迅速溶解:當溶於水內,它會形成清澈的無色溶液,味道清甜。基於這些特性,您能隨時把Ultimate Glucosamine®添加到喜愛的熱或冷飲,或早餐穀物內。





This new powder format gives you flexibility in how you consume Ultimate Glucosamine®. Just add 1 level teaspoon of Ultimate Glucosamine® to any hot or cold drink including tea, coffee, juice, milk or soda. Here are some of the ways people take their Ultimate Glucosamine®:

新的粉末配方令你能隨心所欲地食用Ultimate Glucosamine®。您只需在任何冷熱飲品中添加1平茶匙的Ultimate Glucosamine®,包括茶,咖啡,果汁,牛奶或蘇打水,即可食用。以下是一些別人食用Ultimate Glucosamine®的例子:

For a pleasant, relaxing bedtime drink, add 1 teaspoon to a cup of camomile tea.


Add 1 teaspoon to your daily cup of early morning coffee.


Sprinkle 1 teaspoon over your hot or cold morning cereal.


After playing sports or other physical activity, add 1 teaspoon to your favorite thirst-quenching hot or cold beverage.



The once-a-day, pleasant-tasting formula can easily be adapted to your daily routine – wherever, whenever.

這每天一次,味道怡人的配方可以輕易地成為您日常生活的一部份 – 任何時侯,任何地點。


Most people take 1 level teaspoon (5 mL), or about 2 grams of N-Acetylglucosamine, at a time. Others prefer to use more, especially when they first start to take Ultimate Glucosamine®.

大多數人一次服用1平茶匙(5毫升),或約2克N-乙醯葡糖胺。其他人則傾向於使用更多份量,尤其是當第一次開始食用Ultimate Glucosamine®。


The Science Supporting Glucosamine Utility



Introduction to the Glucosamine family of Compounds



Glucosamine is a general term referring to a family of substances consisting of a glucose core with an amine (-NH2) instead of a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to carbon 2. Further modifications such as the combination with salts or the addition of an acetate bound to an amine yield substances with very different physical and biological properties. In the descriptions below, glucosamine salt refers to a glucosamine with the chemical name: 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose (MW = 179) plus various salts (sulphates, chlorides, sodium and potassium). N-Acetylglucosamine refers to 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (MW 221). N-Acetylglucosamine is found throughout the human body in various large structural molecules. The glucosamine of glucosamine salts is a transitional substance that may be deaminated (removal of the -NH2 and adding back the -OH) back toward glucose and used for energy production or metabolized to N-Acetylglucosamine. For more details on the chemistry and formulations see below.


葡糖胺是一個通用術語,指的是一個由葡萄糖為核心,以胺(NH2)代替羥基(-OH)與碳2(Carbon 2)連接的一種物質族群。進一步的改進,如與鹽結合或添加與胺結合的醋酸產生的物質具有非常不同的物理和生理性質。在下面的描述中,葡糖胺鹽是指一種葡糖胺,化學名稱為:2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖(MW =179)附加幾種鹽(硫酸鹽,氯化物,鈉和鉀)。N-乙醯葡糖胺是指2-乙酰氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖(分子量221)。N-乙醯葡糖胺存在於人體中的各種大型結構分子。

葡糖胺鹽的葡糖胺是一種可以脫氨基回葡萄糖(除去-NH 2,加回-OH)的過渡物質,及用於能源生產或代謝為N-乙酰氨基葡糖。有關化學細節和配方請詳見下文。


How N-Acetylglucosamine Impacts Pain and Inflammation



How N-Acetylglucosamine relieves joint pain and swelling was investigated in human chondrocytes. Human chondrocytes in culture were stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β up-regulates messenger RNA for inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS). When N-Acetylglucosamine was added to the culture media IL-1β was not able to up-regulate messenger RNA for iNOS. See Figure 1. Nitric Oxide is instrumental in tissue swelling.



Figure 1 圖1


Nitric oxide production by human chondrocytes is low in resting cells and increases dramatically when exposed to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The addition of N-Acetylglucosamine mitigates IL-1β’s ability to stimulate Nitric Oxide.



In the same experimental set-up it was shown that IL-1β up-regulates messenger RNA for Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). When N-Acetylglucosamine was added to the culture media IL-1β was not able to up-regulate messenger RNA for COX-2. A reduction in the COX-2 messenger RNA results in a reduction in the amount of COX 2 enzyme. Patients experience a reduction in pain when there isn’t any COX-2 present or when COX-2 is inhibited by NSAIDS. Pain medications such as celecoxib, ibuprofen and naproxen work by inhibiting the COX-2 enzyme. N-Acetylglucosamine reduces overall COX-2 activity by reducing the amount of available COX-2 enzyme. Importantly, N acetylglucosamine does not affect the expression of COX-1 protein. COX-1 protein is constitutively present in tissue and is essential for normal function. Inhibition of COX-1 protein is the cause of some of the side effects seen with NSAIDs.



For more information: Shikhman AR, Kuhn K, Alaaeddine N, Lotz M. N-Acetylglucosamine prevents IL-1 beta-mediated activation of human chondrocytes. J Immunol 2001;166(8):5155-60.


更多資訊:Shikhman AR,Kuhn K,Alaaeddine N,Lotz M。N-乙醯葡糖胺可防止活化IL-1β介導的人軟骨細胞。J Immunol 2001;166(8):5155-60.


N-Acetylglucosamine: A Functional Role in Cartilage



Articular cartilage is composed of collagen, saccharide chains bound to proteins (proteoglycans) and water. The saccharides of cartilage bind large quantities of water forming complexes that gives cartilage its cushioning effect.



The principle saccharide components found in cartilage are N-Acetylglucosamine, its epimer, N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine and glucuronic acid. These components are organized into two major co-polymers: 1) N-Acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, known as hyaluronic acid and 2) N-Acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid known as chondroitin.



The clinical use of supplements of preformed saccharide components such as N-Acetylglucosamine helps to build cartilage by saving the chondrocyte many energy requiring enzymatic steps. In other words, the chondrocyte does not have to build saccharide side chains from the three basic starting materials: glucose, glutamine and acetate.



Chondroitin sulfate is also a popular supplement. However, this large molecule is a copolymer of N-Acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid and cannot be absorbed from the gut intact but must first be broken down into its constituent parts: N-Acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid. The individual components then pass through the circulation to the chondrocyte where they are used to build chondroitin in cartilage.



N-Acetylglucosamine can also be used by the chondrocyte to build chondroitin. In the chondrocyte N-Acetylglucosamine can be converted to N-Acetylgalactosamine by intracellular epimerases. Thus N-Acetylglucosamine supplementation can supply a chondrocyte’s N-Acetylgalactosamine requirements.



Injury to cartilage such as excessive weight bearing or shear is characterized by an early loss of saccharides from cartilage. Loss of the saccharide components leads to a loss of water and thus a loss of cartilage height and cushioning. Restoration of the saccharide components of cartilage may restore cartilage height and cushioning properties.



N-Acetylglucosamine vs Glucosamine Salts: Which is Better?



Ultimate Glucosamine®: Has Superior Biological Properties

Ultimate Glucosamine®:具有優越的生理性特質


N-Acetylglucosamine has several advantages over glucosamine salts as a therapeutic agent.



Insulin Resistance胰島素抗性

Upon entering the cell the glucosamine of glucosamine salts are phosphorylated by glucokinase and thus compete with glucose for binding to glucokinase. This can result in glucosamine induced insulin resistance. N-Acetylglucosamine is phosphorylated by N-Acetylglucosamine kinase and does not compete with glucose for phosphorylation.

當進入細胞時,葡糖胺鹽的葡糖胺被葡萄糖激酶磷酸化,並因此與葡萄糖競爭結合葡糖激酶,這可能會導致葡糖胺誘導對胰島素的抗性。 N-乙酰葡糖胺是由N-乙酰葡糖胺激酶磷酸化,並且不與葡萄糖競爭磷酸化。


Diversion to Energy Production轉向到能源生產

Once in the cell, the glucosamine of glucosamine salts can be deaminated resulting in the production of ammonia and fructose. Fructose is then used for energy metabolism. N-Acetylglucosamine is not metabolized for energy production but is incorporated into macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans.

一旦在細胞中,葡糖胺鹽的葡糖胺可以脫氨基,造成生產氨和果糖。果糖然後被用於能量代謝。 N-乙酰氨基葡糖不能被代謝產生能量,但被摻入高分子,如透明質酸和蛋白聚醣。


Subject to Rate Limiting Enzymatic Acetylation Step受限速酶的乙酰化步驟影響

Once into the cell, the glucosamine of glucosamine salts must be acetylated to become N-Acetylglucosamine before incorporation into the saccharide chains of cartilage. This acetylation step is inefficient and also subject to inhibition by agents such as salicylates and ethanol. N-Acetylglucosamine is already acetylated and is not subject this sensitive rate limiting enzymatic step.



Why Glucosamine May not be Working For Your Patient: The Formulation Problem



Glucosamine is a general term referring to a family of substances consisting of a glucose core with an amine (-NH2) instead of a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to carbon 2. Most products on the market are further modified by the addition of salts. While glucosamine is inherently unstable, the addition of various salts results in a stable complex. Table 1 illustrates the various glucosamine salt preparations on the market. What this table illustrates is that in order for a tablet to contain 500 milligrams of glucosamine (the biologically active substance) a tablet must contain proportionately more because of the salt used to stabilize the formulation. The amount is determined by the specific salt chosen by the manufacturer.

葡糖胺是一個通用術語,指的是一個由葡萄糖為核心,以胺(NH2)代替羥基(-OH)與碳2(Carbon 2)連接的一種物質族群。大多數在市場上的產品加入鹽以進一步改進。本質上葡糖胺內在結構不穩,但加入各種鹽能產生穩定的複合物。表1說明了市場上各種葡糖胺鹽的製劑。這個表格說明的是,為了使藥片包含500毫克的葡糖胺(生物活性物質),因為用於穩定製劑中的鹽的比例較多,藥片必須包含比例較多的鹽。份量是由製造商選擇的鹽來判定。


市場上氨基葡萄糖產品名稱 分子式 鹽的份量(毫克)/每500毫克葡萄糖胺
2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖硫酸鹽氯化鈉(結晶硫酸氨基葡萄糖氯化鈉) (C6H14NO5)2SO4 2NaCl 295
2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖硫酸鹽氯化鉀(結晶葡萄糖硫酸鹽氯化鉀) (C6H14NO5)2SO4 2KCl 340
2-氨基-2-脫氧-D-葡萄糖鹽酸鹽(氨基葡萄糖鹽酸鹽) C6H13NO5-HCl 102


The various salts of low molecular glucosamine create a formulation problem. For example, when the label says 500 mg of crystalline glucosamine sulfate does the capsule contain 500 mg of the complex (salts plus glucosamine) or 500 mg of the active ingredient, i.e. glucosamine plus for example 340 mg of sulfate and potassium chloride? This has practical implications for therapeutics because different formulations may contain very different amounts of glucosamine. In a study of glucosamine products on the Canadian market, Aghazadeh-Habashi and Jamali at the faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, found that only one 500 mg glucosamine salt product out of 13 on the Canadian market contained 100% of the labeled amount of glucosamine. See figure 2 below. Three out of 13 product tested contained between 300 to 400 milligrams of glucosamine, eight out of 13 products tested contained between 200 and 299 milligram of glucosamine and one product only contained 169 mg of glucosamine.



Figure 2: Actual Test Result for 13 Products On The Canadian Market Claiming 500 mg of Glucosamine Content.



Actual low molecular weight glucosamine content in milligrams per capsule or tablet for 13 product claiming 500 milligrams per tablet or capsule. (From Aghazadeh-Habashi 2011)

13款聲稱每片劑或每膠囊含有500毫克的產品在每毫克膠囊或片劑的實際低分子量氨基葡萄糖含量。. (阿加扎德-哈伯西,2011)


Ultimate Glucosamine® is Different

Ultimate Glucosamine®與眾不同


Ultimate Glucosamine® brand of N-Acetylglucosamine is inherently stable and does not require the addition of salts. Ultimate Glucosamine® is formulated as a 100% pure powder without any additives or preservatives of any kind. The pure powder formulation permits patients to make use of the physical properties of N-Acetylglucosamine, sweetness and temperature stability. Ultimate Glucosamine® can be added as a sweetener to a patient’s favourite hot or cold beverage. No tablets to swallow. And because it is 100% N-Acetylglucosamine, the patient gets a full dose every time.

Ultimate Glucosamine®品牌的N-乙醯葡糖胺絕對穩定,並且不需要另外加入鹽。Ultimate Glucosamine®以100%純粉末製成,絕不含任何添加劑或防腐劑。純粉末的製劑令患者能從N-乙醯葡糖胺的物理性質,甜度和溫度穩定性中得益。Ultimate Glucosamine®能被當作增甜劑,加到患者喜愛的冷熱飲品中。您不用進食任何藥片,而且由於本產品是100%的N-乙醯葡糖胺,患者每次均能攝取足夠的劑量。


Most people taking glucosamine supplements are older, probably taking 3 or 4 prescription medications, a multi vitamin and a calcium tablet. Glucosamine formulated in tablets or capsules would add 3 to 6 more “pills” per day to an already substantial “pill burden”. In contrast, Ultimate Glucosamine®’s Once-A Day formulation of N-Acetylglucosamine can be added to a patients favorite hot or cold beverage. Improved compliance ensures a better treatment outcome.

大多數服用葡萄糖胺補充劑的人均年齡較長,可能會同時服用3或4種處方藥,多種維他命及鈣片。氨基葡萄糖藥片或膠囊配製把每天要服用的“藥物”再增加3至6粒“藥”加大了本已沉重的“藥丸數量負擔”。相反,Ultimate Glucosamine®每日一用的N-乙醯葡糖胺配劑能加到患者喜愛的冷熱飲品中,改善了的服用程序能確保更佳的治療效果。


Safety of Ultimate Glucosamine®

Ultimate Glucosamine®的安全性


There are no known drug interactions with Ultimate Glucosamine® brand of N-Acetylglucosamine. Furthermore, N-Acetylglucosamine is not metabolized by the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme family and thus will not interfere with prescription medications that may be metabolized by Cytochrome P450 enzymes.

目前為止,Ultimate Glucosamine®品牌的N-乙醯葡糖胺與藥物沒有已知的相互作用。此外,N-乙醯葡糖胺不被細胞色素P450酶家族代謝,因而不會與可能通過細胞色素P450酶代謝的處方藥物干擾。


Note: Ultimate Glucosamine® brand of N-Acetylglucosamine is a semi synthetic derived from shellfish. Patients with shellfish allergy should not take Ultimate Glucosamine®.

注意:Ultimate Glucosamine®品牌的N-乙醯葡糖胺是從貝類衍生的半合成物。貝類過敏患者不宜服用Ultimate Glucosamine®。


Notice: The information is intended to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the science underlying the role of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine in the mammalian body. The scientific information on this site has been compiled from many different scientific sources. No specific therapeutic claims are made for any product. The information provided on this site is for general information purposes only and is not intended to qualify, supplement or replace that of your medical professional. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Your healthcare giver should undertake diagnosing and treating your medical condition.



2003 PurePharm Inc. All rights reserved Copyright and Legal Disclaimer.

2003年PurePharm Inc.。公司保留所有版權和合法聲明權利。


Most people take 1 level teaspoon (about two grams) of ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE. The once-a-day powder format can easily be adapted to your daily routine:

  • For a relaxing bedtime drink, add to a cup of camomile tea.
  • Make it part of your morning ritual with a cup coffee.
  • Sprinkle some over hot or cold cereal.
  • After any physical activity, add it to a favorite energy drink or smoothie.

Some people prefer to use more, especially when they first start taking ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE. Since the substance has no known toxicity, 2 to 3 teaspoons per day can be taken without any side effects.

大多數人採取1級茶匙(約2克)ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE。一天一次可以很容易地適應你的日常生活:


有些人更喜歡使用更多,特別是當他們開始服用ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE時。由於該物質沒有已知的毒性,每天可以服用2-3茶匙而沒有任何副作用。


Some people see a therapeutic response in only a week.



There are no known interactions with prescription medications, nor is there evidence of any specific side effects attributable to ULTIMATE GLUCOSAMINE. Still, you should always make your health care professional aware of all supplements you are taking.